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  • Globally, many countries have made efforts to achieve Education for All (EFA). This has been done by finding ways of enabling schools to serve all children including those with special needs in their communities as part of an inclusive education system. In Kenya, the government has supported the education system through provision of the Constituency Development Fund which has enabled schools to modify the physical and social environment so that they can fully accommodate the diversity of learning needs that pupils may have. However, learners with special needs in inclusive classes in Lugari Sub-county have continued to perform poorly causing concern to educators and the general community. This study was carried out in Lugari Sub-county with intentions of establishing teacher preparedness to teach inclusive classes. Specific objectives of the study were; to find out methods used by teachers in teaching inclusive classes in public primary schools; establish teachers level of training; find out educational resources used by teachers; to identify support services they got from educational administrators and; to establish teacher preparedness in terms of skills. The descriptive survey design was used in the study which was drawn from a study population of 49 primary schools, 49 head teachers with enrolment of 32,226 pupils and 672 assistant teachers.
    A sample drawn comprised of 20 public primary schools, 5 education officers 20 head teachers and 200 teachers. Both face and content validity were used to validate data collection Instruments which included; questionnaires, interview schedules and document analysis. The questionnaire had a reliability factor of 0.7 on a spearman correlation. Collected data was analyzed using descriptive statistics such as frequencies and percentages. Analyses showed that majority of teachers were not trained in special needs education and therefore, could not effectively handle inclusive classes.  Most of them used inappropriate methodologies to teach inclusive classes, while a good number rarely used available teaching resources in their classes. This indicated that teachers, though well trained and qualified, were not able to handle inclusive classes where learners with special needs are placed. The present study concluded that in-service training should precede for teachers to be able to teach inclusive classes.
    Also individualized educational programme approach for learners with special needs as well as appropriate learning materials could best bring out their potential. From the findings, the study recommends that the society should establish a sensitization centre to reach out to parents, teachers, communities and other stakeholders as intervention measure to accommodate learners with disabilities in the school and society. The study too strongly recommends that the teacher training curriculum should be reviewed so that teachers can be trained in special needs education. This may equip teachers with necessary skills, appropriate methodology as well as teaching and learning resources to be used and they would also be able to identify interventional measures to be used in placement of learners with special needs in inclusive classes.

    Analysis of teacher preparedness to teach inclusive classes in public primary schools in kenya

  • Abstract: The government is fully committed to an education system that guarantees the right of every learner to quality and relevant education. Quality education assures sustainable acquisition of values, knowledge, skills and attitude be it intellectual or practical capable of developing the individual and contributes to national and global development. The process of providing quality education begins with proper planning for financial, human and physical resources and curriculum development.  Since the introduction of free primary education, the Kenyan government has continued to invest heavily on the program for its sustainability and realization of the United Nation Sustainable Development Goals and the Education for All goals. It is important to understand the extent to which this capitation grant has affected service delivery in primary schools. The study sought to investigate the effects of capitation grant on the availability of infrastructural facilities and instructional materials in Seme sub-county, Kenya, with a view of suggesting ways of promoting effective utilization of capitation grant for quality education. The objectives of the study were; to investigate the effects of capitation grant on learning infrastructural facilities in Seme sub-county and to find out the effects of capitation grant on availability of instructional materials for free primary education in Seme sub-county. The study reviewed various literature on some past studies and assessed their contribution to the objectives of this study.  The study used descriptive survey design, qualitative and quantitative methodologies of analyzing data. The study sample comprised of 269 teachers and 86 head teachers. The study used simple random sampling to select teachers. Purposive sampling was used to select primary school head teachers. Data was collected by use of questionnaire and interview schedules. Coded data was presented using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 22 and analyzed using descriptive statistics such as percentages presented in tables. The study found that through the provision of FPE capitation grants, public primary schools were able to repair and maintain their learning facilities such as classrooms, desks and toilets, to improve the environment for teaching and learning. The study also found that FPE capitation grant has facilitated the availability and adequacy of instructional materials hence encouraged quality learning among the pupils. The study concluded that capitation grants influenced positively the availability of infrastructural facilities and instructional materials. Therefore the study recommends that due to effectiveness of FPE capitation grant, disburses on termly basis of 50% term one, 30% term two, 20% term three should consider adjusting upwards the amount awarded to schools to enable the school managers work effectively including proper maintenance of school infrastructural facilities and instructional materials. The school managers should be trained on proper financial management to prevent wastage and mismanagement of the funds. The school stakeholders should work in collaboration when it comes to identifying and budgeting for the learning materials to be purchased. This is important to ensure that the relevant materials with highest impact for the individual school are bought. Key Words: Capitation grants, Infrastructural facilities, Instructional materials, Quality education

    Effects of Capitation Grant on the availability of infrastructural facilities and instructional materials in Kenya

  • This book is aimed at assisting early childhood educators and other stakeholders in ensuring competence in preschoolers for smooth transition to lower primary

    Mathematics Competency For Preschoolers Smooth Transition

  • War is a matter of vital importance to the state; a matter of life or death, the road either to survival or to ruin.  Hence, it is imperative that it be studied thoroughly. Therefore, appraise it in terms of the five fundamental factors and make comparisons of the various conditions of the antagonistic sides in order to ascertain the results of a war.  The first of these factors is politics; the second, weather; the third, terrain; the fourth, the commander; and the fifth, doctrine. Politics means the thing which causes the people to be in harmony with their ruler so that they will follow him in disregard of their lives and without fear of any danger.  Weather signifies night and day, cold and heat, fine days and rain, and change of seasons.  Terrain means distances, and refers to whether the ground is traversed with ease or difficulty and to whether it is open or constricted, and influences your chances of life or death.  The commander stands for the general's qualities of wisdom, sincerity, benevolence, courage, and strictness.  Doctrine is to be understood as the organization of the army, the gradations of rank among the officers, the regulation of supply routes, and the provision of military materials to the army.

    The Art of War